Reading

Reading Unit 5
Reading Comprehension
For thousands of years, people have believed that food could influence their health and well-being. Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, once said: “Let your food be your medicine, and your medicine be your food”. In medieval times, people started to take great interest in how certain foods affected their mood and temperament. Many medical culinary textbooks of the time described the relationship between food and mood. For example, quince, dates and elderberries were used as mood enhancers, lettuce and chicory as tranquilizers, and apples, pomegranates, beef and eggs as erotic stimulants. The past 80 years have seen immense progress in research, primarily short-term human trials and animal studies, showing how certain foods change brain structure, chemistry, and physiology thus affecting mood and performance. These studies suggest that foods directly influencing brain neurotransmitter systems have the greatest effects on mood, at least temporarily. Meanwhile, mood can also influence our food choices and expectations on the effects of certain foods can influence our perception.
The relationship between food and mood in individuals is complex and depends “on the time of day, the type and macronutrient composition of food, the amount of food consumed, and the age and dietary history of the subject”. In one study by Spring et al. (1983), 184 adults consumed either a protein-rich or carbohydrate-rich meal. After two hours, their mood and performance were assessed. The effects of the meal differed for female and male subjects and for younger and older participants. For example, females reported greater sleepiness after a carbohydrate meal whereas males reported greater calmness. In addition, participants aged 40 years or older showed impairments on a test of sustained selective attention after a carbohydrate lunch. Furthermore, circadian rhythms influence our energy levels and performance throughout the day. For example, according to Michaud et al. (1991), if you are an evening person and you skip breakfast, your cognitive performance might be impaired. A large breakfast rich in protein, however, could improve your recall performance but might impair your concentration. This illustrates the complexity of relationships between food and mood and the need to find a healthy balance of food choices.
Studies have found that diets low in carbohydrates increased feelings of anger, depression, and tension and diets high in protein and low in carbohydrates increased anger. Diets high in carbohydrates have a generally uplifting effect on mood.
As much as food can affect our mood, our mood can also affect our food choices. In a study by Macht (1999), female and male participants were asked to report how their eating patterns changed with emotions of anger, fear, sadness, and joy. When experiencing anger and joy, participants experienced increased hunger as compared to feelings of fear and sadness. Another study found that people eat more less-healthy comfort foods when they are sad. Participants watched either a happy or a sad movie and were provided with buttered popcorn or seedless grapes throughout the movie. The group watching the upbeat movie consumed significantly more grapes and less popcorn than the group watching the sad movie. In addition, when participants were provided with nutritional information, the sad people consumed less popcorn than the happy people and the happy people did not alter their consumption.
The perfect diet to enhance mood and optimize performance and health remains unknown. Although abundant research exists on food-mood relationships, the findings of these studies are often generalized and subjective. For example, the ability of carbohydrates to positively influence mood remains controversial. Therefore, it seems best to follow a well-balanced diet rich in protein, moderate in carbohydrates and low in fat since this could generally improve mood and energy levels. This should also ensure the adequate supply of micronutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids, iron, folic acid and thiamine.
Read the passage carefully and answer the questions from 1 to 12
1
Match the given headings below with the paragraphs.
1
Paragraph 2
2
Paragraph 3
3
Paragraph 4
4
Paragraph 5
Mood effects on food choice
Food effects on emotions
Complex Mood-Food Relationships
How to maximize the benefits of food on mood
2
The research on relationship between food and mood is done on ....
3
What is True about the relationship between food and mood?
4
What doesn’t affect the relationship between food and mood?
5
What is True about the study of Spring et al. (1983)?
6
Whose study found that if “Night Owls” skip breakfast, their cognitive performances might be impaired?
7
What feelings make people hungrier?
8
8. What is the implied message of the author at the end of the passage?

Decide whether the statements from number 9 to number 12 are True (T) or False (F).

9
In one study by Spring et al, females claimed that they felt more sleepy after a carbohydrate meal. 
10
According to a study by Spring et al, People aged 30 years showed the lack of attention after a carbohydrate lunch. 
11
Studies have found that diets high in protein and low in carbohydrates increased anger. 
12
The relationship between food and mood in male and female, younger and older subjects is the same.  
New words/ New phrases
Quince:
/kwɪns/
(n.)
quả mộc qua
Quince is such a wonderful fruit and it's such a shame their season is so short.
Quince is good for people who are trying to lose weight and maintain a healthy body.
Date(s):
/deɪt/
(n.)
Quả chà là
In our culture, it’s believed that dates help to shorten labor. Is it true?
One step of making date jam is to place the sugar water on the fire, bring it to boil and cook it for 5 minutes. Add the dates and cook for another 15 minutes.
Elderberry(-ies):
/ˈeldərberi/
(n.)
quả cây cơm cháy
I have gotten some replies regarding my questions on wild grape wine and elderberry wine.
Elderberry syrup is an effective and healthy remedy against colds and flu.
Chicory:
/ˈtʃɪkəri/
(n.)
rau diếp xoăn
I've discovered that chicory is in several food products that I use and have read that this ingredient may have some effects on glucose control.
Chicory is a nutritious vegetable that has many health benefits including anticancer and many others.
Tranquilizer(s):
/ˈtræŋkwəlaɪzər/
(n.)
Thuốc an thần
Anti-anxiety drugs, also known as tranquilizers, are medications that relieve anxiety by slowing down the central nervous system.
A person abusing tranquilizers may not care as much about performance, and so schoolwork or job production are very likely to suffer.
Pomegranate(s):
/ˈpɑːmɪɡrænɪt/
(n.)
quả lựu
Pomegranate also strengthens the brain, cleanses the body and blood from toxins, and is very good at expelling worms from the intestines.
Pomegranate juice protects against heart attack and stroke.
Impairment(s):
/ɪmˈpermənt/
(n.)
sự suy yếu, sự suy giảm
Participants aged 40 years or older showed impairments on a test of sustained selective attention after a carbohydrate lunch.
Elderly patients who experience memory impairment should be screened for depressive symptoms since they may be suffering from depression.
Circadian rhythm(s):
/sɜːrˈkeɪdiən ˈrɪðəm/
(n. phr.)
Nhịp sinh học
Circadian rhythm influences our energy levels and performance throughout the day.
Circadian rhythms are controlled by "clock genes" that code for “clock proteins”.
Take great interest in:
dành sự quan tâm lớn đối với
In medieval times, people started to take great interest in how certain foods affected their mood and temperament.
Being a leader, he really takes great interest in foreign affairs.
Practice:

Drag and drop the given words to complete the following sentences.

Translation
How Food Affects Your Mood
For thousands of years, people have believed that food could influence their health and well-being. Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, once said: “Let your food be your medicine, and your medicine be your food”. In medieval times, people started to take great interest in how certain foods affected their mood and temperament. Many medical culinary textbooks of the time described the relationship between food and mood. For example, quince, dates and elderberries were used as mood enhancers, lettuce and chicory as tranquilizers, and apples, pomegranates, beef and eggs as erotic stimulants. The past 80 years have seen immense progress in research, primarily short-term human trials and animal studies, showing how certain foods change brain structure, chemistry, and physiology thus affecting mood and performance. These studies suggest that foods directly influencing brain neurotransmitter systems have the greatest effects on mood, at least temporarily. Meanwhile, mood can also influence our food choices, and expectations on the effects of certain foods can influence our perception.
The relationship between food and mood in individuals is complex and depends “on the time of day, the type and macronutrient composition of food, the amount of food consumed, and the age and dietary history of the subject”. In one study by Spring et al. (1983), 184 adults either consumed a protein-rich or carbohydrate-rich meal. After two hours, their mood and performance were assessed. The effects of the meal differed for female and male subjects and for younger and older participants. For example, females reported greater sleepiness after a carbohydrate meal whereas males reported greater calmness. In addition, participants aged 40 years or older showed impairments on a test of sustained selective attention after a carbohydrate lunch. Furthermore, circadian rhythms influence our energy levels and performance throughout the day.For example, according to Michaud et al. (1991), if you are an evening person and you skip breakfast, your cognitive performance might be impaired. A large breakfast rich in protein, however, could improve your recall performance but might impair your concentration. This illustrates the complexity of relationships between food and mood and the need to find a healthy balance of food choices.
Studies have found that diets low in carbohydrates increased feelings of anger, depression, and tension and diets high in protein and low in carbohydrates increased anger. Diets high in carbohydrates have a generally uplifting effect on mood.
As much as food can affect our mood, our mood can also affect our food choices. In a study by Macht (1999), female and male participants were asked to report how their eating patterns changed with emotions of anger, fear, sadness, and joy. When experiencing anger and joy, participants experienced increased hunger as compared to feelings of fear and sadness. Another study found that people eat more less-healthy comfort foods when they are sad. Participants either watched a happy or a sad movie and were provided with buttered popcorn or seedless grapes throughout the movie. The group watching the upbeat movie consumed significantly more grapes and less popcorn than the group watching the sad movie. In addition, when participants were provided with nutritional information, the sad people consumed less popcorn than the happy people and the happy people did not alter their consumption.
The perfect diet to enhance mood and optimize performance and health remains unknown. Although abundant research exists on food-mood relationships, the findings of these studies are often generalized and subjective. For example, the ability of carbohydrates to positively influence mood remains controversial. Therefore, it seems best to follow a well-balanced diet rich in protein, moderate in carbohydrates and low in fat since this could generally improve mood and energy levels. This should also ensure the adequate supply of micronutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids, iron, folic acid and thiamine.
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HAYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
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_no comment_
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Good
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hayyyyyyyyyyyyyy
Gửi lúc: 10:17:51 ngày 05-04-2020
Ai là fan của Princess Star Butterfly thì kết bạn vs tớ nhé. Star Butterfly!!!
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