Reading

Reading Unit 10
Reading Comprehension
For the first time in history, almost the entire world is now sharing the same economic system. Communism began to fall in the late 1980s, and since then, capitalism has spread to most corners of the world. The basis of a “pure” capitalist economy is free trade, also called “open trade”. There are benefits of open trade for both rich and poor countries. For developed countries such as Japan and England, free trade brings with it more competition, which in turn brings advantages such as lower prices and more choices of products for consumers. For developing countries, open trade means that people have access to essential goods such as food, clothing, and fuel (for transportation and heat). An open economic system can be a key to improving the lives of people in both poor and rich countries because it can reduce poverty and improve living conditions.

“Leaking boats”

This is apparently very good news. Optimists often say that “the rising tide lifts all boats.” What do they mean by this? Imagine a harbor filled with boats – some small ones, some medium-sized, and some huge ships. As the ocean tide comes in every twelve hours, the water rises and literally lifts all boats – both large and small. In economics, this expression means that in good economic times, poor countries benefit as much as rich countries do. However, pessimists point out that many of the “small boats” seem to be “leaking” – have holes in them – and so are going down instead of up. In other words, the gap between rich and poor – the economic difference between them – is wider than it was in the past. The contrast can be startling. A former U.S. president, Jimmy Carter, once put it this way: “Globalization, as defined by rich people, ... is a very nice thing ... You are talking about cell phones, you are talking about computers.” However, he went on to point out that this “nice thing ... doesn’t affect two-thirds of the people of the world.” In fact, according to the World Bank, more than 1.1 billion people live on less than a dollar a day.

The influence of Geography

Why is this happening? What causes this gap between rich and poor? Many of the poorest countries are at a disadvantage because of geography, which is the root of several problems. First, a country that is landlocked, with no access to an ocean, has a disadvantage because it cannot easily transport its products to other parts of the world. Second, many – but not all – countries in tropical regions (near the equator) have the disadvantage of heavy, heavy rains that often wash nutrients from the land. Without these nutrients in the soil, agricultural development is more difficult. Another obstacle for many countries is the problem of infectious diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, and dengue fever, which are found only in tropical climates. It goes without saying that people weak with disease cannot contribute to the economy of the country.

Protectionist Policies

Another cause of the growing gap between rich and poor countries is protectionist policies. In other words, many rich countries have governmental plans that give special help to their own people, so trade isn’t actually completely “open”. One example of protectionist policies is an agricultural subsidy. This is money that a government gives to farmers; unfortunately, governments in poor countries can’t pay these subsidies to their farmers. Therefore, the farmers in rich countries have a competitive edge in the global market. Other protectionist policies are “hidden”. For example, Country X (a rich nation) might say their trade is open. However, it will not buy products from Country Y (a poor nation). Why? It says that Country Y does not have high enough health or safety standards.

A way out

It may sound as if the situation is hopeless for developing countries ever to have a competitive edge in global trade – but perhaps not. East Asia, for example, has found far more economic success than Africa has. The key to success seems to lie in each government’s economic policy. Malaysia and Thailand have the same tropical climate as many African countries, but their economies – unlike those of Africa – are growing fast. The reason? Their governments have created an economic climate in which people can move from agriculture to manufacturing. Geography is not the terrible obstacle to manufacturing that it is to farming. To help new entrepreneurs, these governments pay careful attention to areas such as infrastructure (harbors, railroads, and so on) and telecommunication. In other countries, such as India, information technology (infotech) is driving the economy in some cities. Computer technology doesn’t depend on geography, but it does require educated workers. Therefore, education must be a priority. In addition, governments of developing countries must work with developed countries and persuade them to drop protectionist policies. Clearly, it is possible for government policy to prepare a path out of poverty in even poor countries.
Practice :

Decide if the following statements are TRUE (T) or FALSE (F).

1
Capitalism started to replace communism all over the world in the late twentieth century. 
2
Open trade benefits both developed countries and developing ones. 
3
With the presence of open economic system, poor countries benefit as much as rich countries do in any economic times. 
4
Optimists believe that open trade helps widen the difference between rich and poor people. 
5
The World Bank states that more than 1.1 million people live on less than a dollar a day. 
6
The gap between rich and poor countries results from their difference in geography. 
7
A rich nation won’t buy products from a poor one because it doesn’t have high enough health or safety standards. 
8
The governments of East Asian countries have shifted their concentration from agriculture to manufacturing. 
New words :
Landlocked:
/ˈlændlɑːkt/
(adj.)
Bao quanh bởi đất liền
A country that is landlocked cannot easily transport its products to other parts of the world.
Switzerland is completely landlocked.
Protectionist:
/prəˈtekʃənɪst/
(adj.)
Bảo hộ, bảo vệ nền công nghiệp trong nước (bằng hình thức đánh thuế vào các mặt hàng nước ngoài)
One of the causes of the growing gap between rich and poor countries is protectionist policies.
The small production of barley, soybeans, and corn relies heavily on government subsidies and protectionist trade policies.
Subsidy:
/ˈsʌbsədi/
(n.)
Sự trợ giá, sự trợ cấp
One example of a protectionist policy is the agricultural subsidy.
Subsidy from the public purse to support the network in rural areas is still very high.
Agriculture - Agricultural:
/ˈæɡrɪkʌltʃər/ - /ˌæɡrɪˈkʌltʃərəl/
(n. adj.)
Nông nghiệp - Thuộc về nông nghiệp
The number of people employed in agriculture has fallen in the last decade.
Agricultural drought involves mainly farming and food production.
Manufacture:
/ˌmænjuˈfæktʃər/
(n. v.)
Sản xuất
Their governments have created an economic climate in which people can move from agriculture to manufacturing.
Vitamins cannot be manufactured by our bodies.
Entrepreneur:
/ˌɑːntrəprəˈnɜːr/
(n.)
Doanh nghiệp, nhà kinh doanh
Many successful entrepreneurs come from tough, working class backgrounds.
In recent years new forms of Income Tax relief have been introduced to encourage the entrepreneur.
Infrastructure:
/ˈɪnfrəstrʌktʃər/
(n.)
Cơ sở hạ tầng
To help new entrepreneurs, these governments pay careful attention to infrastructure.
We are working hard to build the infrastructure needed by such companies.

Important phrases:

Have access to:
Tiếp cận với
Open trade means that people have access to essential goods such as food, clothing, and fuel.
Students must have access to good resources.
It goes without saying...:
Chẳng cần nói cũng biết...
It goes without saying that people weak with disease cannot contribute to the economy of the country.
It goes without saying that we're delighted about the new baby.
Practice:

Choose the suitable words to complete the following sentences.

1
Although the country is totally ..... it contains three important rivers.
2
Such ..... moves reduce trade, and ultimately, prosperity for both nations involved.
3
This policy suggests that there may be a hidden ..... for crocodile producers.
4
Every week hundreds of ..... meet their bank managers in the hope of getting a loan.
5
..... subsidies can make it impossible for small-scale farmers to make a decent living.
6
Maintaining high quality is particularly important in pharmaceutical .....
7
The need to rebuild a media ..... from the bottom up is clearly evident.
Translation
For the first time in history, almost the entire world is now sharing the same economic system. Communism began to fall in the late 1980s, and since then, capitalism has spread to most corners of the world. The basis of a “pure” capitalist economy is free trade, also called “open trade”. There are benefits of open trade for both rich and poor countries. For developed countries such as Japan and England, free trade brings with it more competition, which in turn brings advantages such as lower prices and more choices of products for consumers. For developing countries, open trade means that people have access to essential goods such as food, clothing, and fuel (for transportation and heat). An open economic system can be a key to improving the lives of people in both poor and rich countries because it can reduce poverty and improve living conditions.
“Leaking boats”
This is apparently very good news. Optimists often say that “the rising tide lifts all boats.” What do they mean by this? Imagine a harbor filled with boats – some small ones, some medium-sized, and some huge ships. As the ocean tide comes in every twelve hours, the water rises and literally lifts all boats – both large and small. In economics, this expression means that in good economic times, poor countries benefit as much as rich countries do. However, pessimists point out that many of the “small boats” seem to be “leaking” – have holes in them – and so are going down instead of up. In other words, the gap between rich and poor – the economic difference between them – is wider than it was in the past. The contrast can be startling. A former U.S. president, Jimmy Carter, once put it this way: “Globalization, as defined by rich people, ... is a very nice thing ... You are talking about cell phones, you are talking about computers.” However, he went on to point out that this “nice thing ... doesn’t affect two-thirds of the people of the world.” In fact, according to the World Bank, more than 1.1 billion people live on less than a dollar a day.
The influence of Geography
Why is this happening? What causes this gap between rich and poor? Many of the poorest countries are at a disadvantage because of geography, which is the root of several problems. First, a country that is landlocked, with no access to an ocean, has a disadvantage because it cannot easily transport its products to other parts of the world. Second, many – but not all – countries in tropical regions (near the equator) have the disadvantage of heavy, heavy rains that often wash nutrients from the land. Without these nutrients in the soil, agricultural development is more difficult. Another obstacle for many countries is the problem of infectious diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, and dengue fever, which are found only in tropical climates. It goes without saying that people weak with disease cannot contribute to the economy of the country.
Protectionist Policies
Another cause of the growing gap between rich and poor countries is protectionist policies. In other words, many rich countries have governmental plans that give special help to their own people, so trade isn’t actually completely “open”. One example of a protectionist policy is an agricultural subsidy. This is money that a government gives to farmers; unfortunately, governments in poor countries can’t pay these subsidies to their farmers. Therefore, the farmers in rich countries have a competitive edge in the global market. Other protectionist policies are “hidden”. For example, Country X (a rich nation) might say their trade is open. However, it will not buy products from Country Y (a poor nation). Why? It says that Country Y does not have high enough health or safety standards.
A way out
It may sound as if the situation is hopeless for developing countries ever to have a competitive edge in global trade – but perhaps not. East Asia, for example, has found far more economic success than Africa as. The key to success seems to lie in each government’s economic policy. Malaysia and Thailand have the same tropical climate as many African countries, but their economies – unlike those of Africa – are growing fast. The reason? Their governments have created an economic climate in which people can move from agriculture to manufacturing. Geography is not the terrible obstacle to manufacturing that it is to farming. To help new entrepreneurs, these governments pay careful attention to areas such as infrastructure (harbors, railroads, and so on) and telecommunication. In other countries, such as India, information technology (infotech) is driving the economy in some cities. Computer technology doesn’t depend on geography, but it does require educated workers. Therefore, education must be a priority. In addition, governments of developing countries must work with developed countries and persuade them to drop protectionist policies. Clearly, it is possible for government policy to prepare a path out of poverty in even poor countries.
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~ No Commet ~
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♡๖ۣۜßℓα¢ƙρĭηƙ•๖ۣۜIη•๖ۣۜƔσυɾ•๖ۣۜĄɾεα♡
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Hừmmmmmmmmm
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Ai là fan của Princess Star Butterfly thì kết bạn vs tớ nhé. Star Butterfly!!!
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no comment....
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