Writing

Listening Unit 1
Slide 1
Hello everyone! Welcome you to the first writing lesson in English Advanced course.As you know, in writing, students begin by learning letters, then words, and finally sentences. In time, students learn how to write a paragraph by taking those sentences and organizing them around a common topic. This lesson will help you to overview about paragraph and paragraph writing in 4 main parts:
I. What is a paragraph?
II. What are types of paragraph?
II. What is the format of a paragraph?
IV. What are tips for writing a good paragraph?
Slide 2
A paragraph is a series of sentences that are organized and coherent, and are all related to a single topic. Almost every piece of writing you do that is longer than a few sentences should be organized into paragraphs. This is because paragraphs show a reader where the subdivisions of an essay begin and end, and thus help the reader see the organization of the essay and understand its main points. Paragraphs can contain many different kinds of information.
    A paragraph could contain a series of brief examples or a single long illustration of a general point.
    A paragraph might describe a place, character, or process; narrate a series of events; compare or contrast two or more things or describe causes and effects.
This is a sample of a paragraph, can you guess the type of that paragraph.
Giải thích: Chỗ này là chỗ hiển thị lời giải thích, kiểu chữ, màu sắc và kích thước giống như vậy. Trường hợp dài thì nó sẽ xuống dòng như thế này này.
Slide 3
Regardless of the kind of information they contain, all paragraphs share certain characteristics and have different names. In general, there are 6 types of paragraphs.
Descriptive Paragraph
Narrative Paragraph
Process analysis Paragraph (Expository)
Persuasive/ Argumentative Paragraph
Compare/ Contrast Paragraph
Cause and Effect Paragraph
Giải thích: Chỗ này là chỗ hiển thị lời giải thích, kiểu chữ, màu sắc và kích thước giống như vậy. Trường hợp dài thì nó sẽ xuống dòng như thế này này.
Slide 4
A descriptive paragraph is one that is describing a person, place, thing, animal, theme or idea to the reader. Descriptive phrases make use of the five senses: how something feels, smells, sounds, tastes or looks. A good descriptive paragraph will make them feel like they were there experiencing everything you're talking about. For example, you can write a descriptive paragraph describing your best friend, including what she likes and dislikes, where she lives, what she wants for her birthday, and her favorite food. Or you can write a descriptive paragraph describing your dream house, a character from a book, movie, or television program.
Look at this sample of a descriptive paragraph:
To me, one of my best friends is Nam. Nam is only over eighteen but he is well developed; so he is thought to be twenty or more. He has black hair, a broad forehead, a straight nose and bright eyes. He is very good-looking. He has a kind heart and is easy to get on with everybody. We have been friends for a very long time. The deeper our mutual understanding becomes the more we feel closely attached to each other. “Birds of a feather flock together”, Nam and I are keen on learning. We are the best pupils in our class. Nam is always at the top. He is good at every subject, but he never shows pride in his abilities and always tries to learn harder.
Giải thích: Chỗ này là chỗ hiển thị lời giải thích, kiểu chữ, màu sắc và kích thước giống như vậy. Trường hợp dài thì nó sẽ xuống dòng như thế này này.
Slide 5
This paragraph describes an event or tells a story, usually in chronological order. Narrative paragraphs will include action, events and exciting descriptive words. These paragraphs help keep the reader engaged in the story. Narrative paragraphs are similar to descriptive paragraphs (and a paragraph may actually be both at once), but a narrative paragraph tends to offer the reader more background information, such as past events that lead up to or cause events in the story. For example, you can write a narrative paragraph detailing what you did on your first day of school/ telling about your last vacation. Or you can write an embarrassing experience, a memorable wedding or funeral. Write about the most memorable movie you have seen. Briefly explain the plot (story) of the film.
Look at this sample of a narrative paragraph:
Close-up study of the planet Mars began when rockets were developed that could send scientific instruments into space. In 1965, the first observations of Mars were done by the American spacecraft Mariner 4, which flew near the planet to collect data and take photographs. Four years later, more data and photographs were collected by Mariners 6 and 7 as they flew past the planet. Then, in 1971, Mariner 9 actually went into orbit around Mars, and during the following eleven months, sent back more than 7,000 images before contact with the spacecraft was lost. The next major step, in 1976, was the landing of two Viking crafts on two different areas of Mars’ surface. These landers were able to send hack important data about the atmosphere of the planet.
Giải thích: Chỗ này là chỗ hiển thị lời giải thích, kiểu chữ, màu sắc và kích thước giống như vậy. Trường hợp dài thì nó sẽ xuống dòng như thế này này.
Slide 6
This paragraph explains an idea; it is also called an information paragraph. This paragraph may contain directions or might describe a process in a logical, linear manner. For example, you can write a Process analysis paragraph explaining how to make chocolate chip cookies/ how to prepare a birthday party/ how to have a good interview.
Look at this sample of a process analysis paragraph:
People often think all planets are alike, but there are actually three types of planets in the solar system. The terrestrial planets are made of rock and metal and are closest to the sun. These include the midsize planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. They rotate slowly and don’t have many moons. Farther from the sun are the planets called gas giants, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. They are called gas giants because they are formed from gases such as hydrogen and helium. Gas giants rotate fast and have many moons. Finally, planetoids are objects made up of rock and ice and are too small to be true “planets.” Planetoids sometimes even get pulled into a planet’s gravitational field and become moons themselves. Whether they are terrestrials, gas giants, or planetoids, the planets in the solar system are fascinating.
Giải thích: Chỗ này là chỗ hiển thị lời giải thích, kiểu chữ, màu sắc và kích thước giống như vậy. Trường hợp dài thì nó sẽ xuống dòng như thế này này.
Slide 7
This paragraph tries to convince the reader of something. Argumentative paragraph will also include facts and information that help to back up the writer's opinion. For example, you can write a argumentative paragraph telling why people should vote for you for president. Or you can write about 1 issue like “All students in high school and college should be required to take at least two years of a foreign language”.
Look at this sample of an argumentative paragraph:
“UV intensity is the most important factor in skin cancer fatalities.” Do you agree?
UV intensity is not the most important factor in skin cancer fatalities. While residents of Colorado (mean elevation of 2.1 km) have always been subjected to the highest UV intensities in the United States, Colorado has one of the lowest skin cancer fatality rates of all the states. In contrast, New England, which has much lower UV intensities, has a death rate from skin cancer 25% higher than it is in Colorado. In addition, although equatorial regions have higher UV intensities, the lowest reported skin cancer death rates in the world come from Mauritius (0.2 per 100,000) and Nicaragua (0.2 per 100,000). On the other hand, Ireland (2.64 per 100,000) has the world’s third highest rate. Evidence is strong that UV intensity is not the principal factor in determining the skin cancer death rate. Genetic factors, skin pigmentation, behavioral characteristics, medical facilities, broad straw hats, and sun screen lotion all have some influence on skin cancer fatalities.
Giải thích: Chỗ này là chỗ hiển thị lời giải thích, kiểu chữ, màu sắc và kích thước giống như vậy. Trường hợp dài thì nó sẽ xuống dòng như thế này này.
Slide 8
Compare and contrast paragraphs are written to expose similarities and differences of two places, countries, people, friends, items, objects or events. When comparing two things, the writer emphasizes the similarities between the things compared; however, when contrasting, the writer mentions about the differences between them. The best way to start a compare and contrast paragraph is to choose two related items and clarify what is precisely being compared. It is also possible to give a list of selected criteria that will be used to make the comparison. For example: You write a contrast paragraph to tell about the differences between American English and British English, compare the living standard in the big city to the country, or you can write a paragraph to tell the similarities between two of the most popular US presidents, Abraham Lincoln and John F. Kennedy.
Let’s take a look this sample of compare/ contrast paragraph:
Students who have Mr. Jones and Mr. Smith are immediately aware of the difference in the lecturing manner of each teacher. Mr. Jones has a pleasant voice, which helps hold the interest of the students. He pronounces clearly in a rhythmic pattern emphasizing key words. His moderate tone and inflected words make his lectures interesting. Mr. Jones also adds humor to his subject and he welcomes questions from students who don’t understand the material. He takes his time and explains slowly. He tries to make sure that his students understand a concept before he moves on to something new, and he is very enthusiastic about his subject. Mr. Smith, on the other hand, has a different tone, pronunciation, expression and attitude from Mr. Jones. He has a booming voice, which commands rather than teaches, and sometimes it is hard to understand because he runs his words together. His lectures are not as interesting as those of Mr. Jones, either, because Mr. Smith speaks in a boring monotone. He also hates to be interrupted; feeling that he must cover everything. Mr. Smith teaches every class in a serious, determined mood. Thus, as the above points illustrate, the lectures of Mr. Jones and Mr. Smith are quite different.
Back to the first question at the beginning lesson, now the answer is Cause and Effect Paragraph. Let’s find what is Cause and Effect Paragraph.
Giải thích: Chỗ này là chỗ hiển thị lời giải thích, kiểu chữ, màu sắc và kích thước giống như vậy. Trường hợp dài thì nó sẽ xuống dòng như thế này này.
Slide 9
A cause and effect paragraph is a paragraph that indicates the cause (or reason) that produces an effect (or result), or the paragraph that points out the effect (or result) produced by a cause. In short, the cause/effect paragraph explains why a condition occurs or the effect that this condition brings about. For example, you can write a cause and effect paragraph about topic Teenage Pregnancy: what causes this? The cause and effect of stress when people live in the big city. The following example paragraph provides three reasons to prove that Bangkok today is not suitable to live in.
Let’s take a look this sample of cause and effect paragraph:
Other than for opportunities for education and jobs, Bangkok today is a poor 'city to live in because of three reasons. The first reason is the traffic problem which is getting worse and worse. It is not only at certain hours or certain places, but all the time everywhere. The environmental problem is the second reason for Bangkok's not being suitable to live in. At present, Bangkok is facing many kinds of pollution such as, air, water and noise pollution - all of which can make people unhealthy. The final reason concerns the crime problem which threatens Bangkokians every day. People and their property are unsafe at every moment.
Giải thích: Chỗ này là chỗ hiển thị lời giải thích, kiểu chữ, màu sắc và kích thước giống như vậy. Trường hợp dài thì nó sẽ xuống dòng như thế này này.
Slide 10
First of all, let’s take a look at the paragraph below.
Students require more recreational time in order to better focus on lessons in class. In fact, studies have shown that students who enjoy a recess of more than 45 minutes consistently score better on tests immediately following the recess period. Clinical analysis further suggests that physical exercise greatly improves the ability to focus on academic materials. Longer periods of recess are clearly required to allow students the best possible chances of success in their studies. Clearly, physical exercise is just one of the necessary ingredients for improving student scores on standardized tests.
You can see that there are four sentence types used to construct a paragraph, let’s analyze the sample.
1. Topic sentence:
One sentence which states your idea, point, or opinion, this sentence should use a strong verb and make a bold statement.
For example: Students require more recreational time in order to better focus on lessons in class.
NOTE: Notice the strong verb 'require' which is a call to action. A weaker form of this sentence might be: I think students probably need more recreational time ...This weaker form is inappropriate for a topic sentence.
2. Supporting sentences:
Supporting sentences (notice the plural) provide explanations and support for the topic sentence (main idea) of your paragraph.
For example: In fact, studies have shown that students who enjoy a recess of more than 45 minutes consistently score better on tests immediately following the recess period. Clinical analysis further suggests that physical exercise greatly improves the ability to focus on academic materials.
NOTE: Supporting sentences provide the evidence for your topic sentence. Supporting sentences that include facts, statistics and logical reasoning are much more convincing that simple statements of opinion.
3. Concluding sentence
The concluding sentence restates the main idea (found in your topic sentence) and reinforces the point or opinion.
For example: Longer periods of recess are clearly required to allow students the best possible chances of success in their studies.
NOTE: Concluding sentences repeat the main idea of your paragraph in different words.
4. Transitional sentence
The transitional sentence prepares the reader for the following paragraph.
For example: Clearly, physical exercise is just one of the necessary ingredients for improving student scores on standardized test
NOTE: Transitional sentences should help readers logically understand the connection between your current main idea, point or opinion and the main idea of your next paragraph. In this instance, the phrase 'just one of the necessary ingredients ...' prepares the reader for the next paragraph which will discuss another necessary ingredient for success.
Giải thích: Chỗ này là chỗ hiển thị lời giải thích, kiểu chữ, màu sắc và kích thước giống như vậy. Trường hợp dài thì nó sẽ xuống dòng như thế này này.
Slide 11
The way that you write paragraphs is simply to pretend that you are talking to someone. Here are some good tips for writing effective paragraphs:
"Tell Them What You Are Going To Tell them"
Writing is the same as making a speech - first, you want to give the audience an idea of what is coming up. This will be your topic sentence, and should give a pretty good idea of what the paragraph is going to be about. A good topic sentence should be specific instead of general, and should convey some sort of emotion - either an attitude, a belief, or a conviction.
"Tell Them"
next, you write your supporting sentences - be sure that each one supports the topic sentence - if you think of a sentence that goes off on a tangent or starts a new topic, put it into another paragraph.
"Tell Them What You Just Told Them"
Your conclusion sentence should repeat the basic idea of the topic sentence using different words.
Giải thích: Chỗ này là chỗ hiển thị lời giải thích, kiểu chữ, màu sắc và kích thước giống như vậy. Trường hợp dài thì nó sẽ xuống dòng như thế này này.
Practice
A. Your task is to do the exercises below to review the content of the lesson.
I. Decide the statements from number 1 to number 5 are TRUE or FALSE, type.
1
A new paragraph must always begin on a new line....
2
There’s no set length for a paragraph; however, you should try to avoid the one sentence paragraph...
3
A paragraph must express more than one thought, idea or topic....
4
If you want to change topic, you should also change paragraph....
5
A paragraph must not be made up of closely related sentences that develop a main idea....
II. From question number 6 to number 11, you choose and type the number as the type of paragraph that the statement refers to.
6
...Includes facts and information that help to back up the writer's opinion
7
...Contains directions or might describe a process in a logical, linear manner
8
...Exposes similarities and differences of two places, countries, people, friends, items, objects or events
9
...Answer the questions 'Why", such as Why did it happen?" or “What"
10
...Describes a person, place, thing, animal, theme or idea to the reader
11
...Describes an event or tells a story, usually in chronological order
III. Choose the best answer
Task 1: Read the paragraph below and answer the question from number 12 to number 14
There are many reasons why I don’t smoke. First, smoking is unhealthy. It can cause lung cancer, and it can lead to an early death. Furthermore, smoking is expensive. A pack of cigarettes costs five dollars. If I bought one pack of cigarettes every day, I would spend over $1500 each year. Lastly, cigarettes smell bad. When people smoke, you can smell the cigarettes on their clothes all day. For example, the other night, I went to a restaurant that allowed smoking. After I left, all of my clothes smelled terrible, as did my hair. If I were a smoker, I would smell that way all the time. To sum up, I don’t smoke because it is unhealthy, expensive, and unattractive.
12
The topic sentence of the paragraph above is:
13
The concluding sentence of the paragraph above is:
14
What type is this paragraph?
Task 2: Read the paragraph below and answer the question from number 15 to number 16
Many people believe that sports professionals earn too much money. They argue that sport is a form of entertainment rather than a vital public service. We could easily live without sportspeople, yet other professionals who contribute much more to society are undervalued and underpaid. For example, football players can earn enormous salaries by simply kicking a ball, while doctors, nurses and teachers earn a fraction of the money despite being essential for our health and prosperity. From this perspective, sports stars do not deserve the salaries they currently earn.
15
The topic sentence of the paragraph above is:
16
What is the role of this sentence in paragraph?
We could easily live without sportspeople, yet other professionals who contribute much more to society are undervalued and underpaid.
Task 3: Read the paragraphs below and choose their types.
Although cell phones and regular phones have the same purpose and they both work the same, they have many differences as well. For example a cell phone has to have at least six service bars in order to talk and the battery has to be charged before it will work. The battery needs to charge for about an hour but it depends on what kind of charger you use. The charger that comes with the cell phone doesn't take as long to charge the phone as chargers purchased over the counter. A hard wired phone, one that has to be installed through wiring within your home, can be used anywhere in your home and is maintained by telephone servicemen. Some of hard wired phones are cordless, which means they can be used throughout the home and even in the yard. You can't take your hard wired phone with you in your vehicle because service is limited to just a short range. A cordless phone has to be returned to its base periodically to be recharged. With your cell phone, someone can leave you a message and you can get it right on the phone whereas on a home phone, you have to have an answering machine. Although they have many differences, they also have some similarities. They both have to be charged in order to keep the battery full. You can use both to make and receive a call. They also both ring to tell you that you have an incoming call. A cell phone can be programmed for special rings but a hard wired phone has only one ring tone. Cell phones are much smaller in appearance than a hard wired phone. Cell phones may have different appearances and gadgets but they both serve the same purpose.
17
What type is this paragraph?
Going to college can be expensive. First, college tuition and room and board can cost anywhere from $2,000 to more than $10,000 per semester. Other expenses make going to college even more expensive. For example, books typically cost between $100 and $500 each term. Second, materials are also very expensive. Paper, notebooks, writing utensils, and other supplies required often cost more at the college bookstore than at any local discount department store. For instance, a package of notepaper costing $2 at a discount store might cost $5 at a college bookstore. Finally, there are all kinds of special fees added onto the bill at registration time. A college student might have to pay a $50 insurance fee, a $20 activity fee, a $15 fee to the student government association and anywhere from $500 to $100 for parking. There is another fee if a student decides to add or drop classes after registration. The fees required to attend college never seem to end.
18
What type is this paragraph?
Practice
B. Choose one topic below to write a paragraph and send back to get the feedback from the teachers at tienganh123.com.
1
Write about the most frightening (or happy or difficult) experience you have ever had
2
What is typically causing you stress when you live in a big city?
3
Is TV good for children?
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