Reading

REVIEW TEST 1 - READING
Reading comprehension 1
Symbolic Clothing
Hundreds of years ago, umbrellas were symbols of power and authority. Kings, sheikhs, popes, and other rulers believed that owning these sunshades added to their importance. The more umbrellas a ruler had, the more he impressed others; and the bigger his umbrellas, the more power the owner appeared to have. It seems odd to us today that such an everyday object could have once been used to differentiate rulers from ordinary people. Yet at that time, an umbrella was an unambiguous symbol of power. Similarly; contemporary cultures today employ many common things, including clothing, as symbols of social status.

For example, in the civil courts of law in many countries, judges wear long robes, usually black, that cover their ordinary clothing. The robes indentify the judges' role in the courtroom and symbolize their authority to administer justice. In Britain and in most Commonwealth nations, judges and certain court officials also wear white wigs that symbolize their roles.

Similarly, the ceremonial clothing of European kings and queens is symbolic of their royal authority: Nowadays they wear the long, fur- trimmed capes only on special occasions, with jeweled crowns on their heads and jeweled staffs, called scepters, held in their hands. The academic cap and gown is another example of symbolic clothing. Hundreds of years ago, students at European universities were required to wear long, black robes. Today academic robes are worn only for graduation ceremonies along with a close-fitting black cap topped by a flat, black square. Graduating students also wear short drapes of cloth over their gowns, whereby their field of academic specialization is indicated via color. An orange cloth symbolizes engineering, for example, and green symbolizes medicine. A wedding, too, is a change-of-status ceremony. Traditional attire is an integral part of the ritual. In a conventional Western wedding, the bride wears a long, white dress. She also wears a white veil on her head and carries a bouquet of flowers. Her clothing and various accessories (which may be hidden) constitute traditional good-luck items that a bride should carry: "something gold, something new, something borrowed, something blue, and a lucky penny in her shoe."

Traditional Western wedding clothes are becoming popular everywhere. The symbolism of the Western white wedding dress is so strong that brides from many non- Western cultures have chosen to include such a dress in their weddings. An Asian bride, for example, might wear a red gown during a traditional wedding ceremony and then change into a white wedding dress. Unlike judges or loyalty, who wear symbolic clothing only for certain occasions, religious leaders tend to wear clothing that identifies their religious roles at all times. In many religions, there are two kinds of religious clothing. Religious leaders wear one kind of clothing on a daily basis as they perform non- ceremonial tasks. The other kind is what they wear while participating in religious ceremonies. Often this attire is a long robe of a certain color, perhaps decorated with religious symbols. In some religions, the leaders must wear head coverings, while in others they are forbidden to cover their heads.

Military personnel, too, wear uniforms at all times, but different types. One type is for everyday wear, and another is the formal uniform worn for military ceremonies. A third type is worn in battle. Military uniforms serve several symbolic functions. First, the various decorations on a uniform jacket and hat are indexes of someone's position in the military. Second, uniforms encourage members of a group to acquire a sense of unity and pride. Finally; in the context of a battle, uniforms become symbols of the nation the soldiers are defending. Symbolic clothing can symbolize many things, including authority, nationality and change of status. The objects and clothing that become important symbols in a culture are determined by the special meaning that people give them.
Practice 1

From question 1 to 4, read the passage carefully and decide the following statements are True (T) or False (F).

1
Hundreds of years ago, the umbrellas that royalty acquired became symbols of their high positions in society. 
2
Nowadays, everyday object could have been used to differentiate rulers from ordinary people. 
3
Graduating students also wear short drapes of cloth over their gowns which indicate their changes of status via color. 
4
In some cultures, the Western wedding dress is becoming an integral part of non-western wedding ceremonies. 

From question 5 to 9, choose the best answer for each question.

5
What do judges often wear in the civil courts?
6
Who tend to wear symbolic clothing at all times?
7
What is not symbolic function of military uniform?
8
What does not symbolic clothing symbolize?
Reading comprehension 2
The Inner Planets
Earth is just one of the planets in our solar system. Planets are large bodies that rotate around the sun. They reflect the sun’s light and warmth. The planets that are located closest to the sun are made out of rocky material. They are relatively small but heavy. In contrast, the planets that are farther away from the sun are much larger. They are formed of light gases. All planets follow a certain path around the sun. They are held a specific distance from the sun by the sun’s strong gravitational force. The inner planets, or those closest to the sun, are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Even though these planets are all small and rocky, they have more differences than they have things in common. Because Mercury is the closest to the sun, the side that faces the sun gets as hot as 4270C. At the same time, the side that faces away from the sun is a freezing -1730C. Mercury also has a slower rate of rotation than Earth. Days and nights on Mercury are much longer than ours. The extreme temperatures alone make it a very unlikely place for life. With an atmosphere too thin for human breathing, it’s obvious that people won’t be living on Mercury any time soon.

The next planet from the sun is Venus. Below clouds of sulfuric gas lies its 96% carbon dioxide atmosphere. That might be nice for a plant, since a plant “breathes” carbon dioxide, but not for a person. If you managed to survive the atmosphere, the surface of the planet is hot enough to melt solid metal. In addition, the pressure of the air would be strong enough to crush you. You are probably most familiar with Earth because it is your home planet. It has the perfect conditions for life. Earth’s atmosphere and oceans help control the trickiest part of making a planet life-friendly: temperature. Earth is the only planet known to have liquid water.

Mars is the fourth farthest from the sun. Mars has been studied and photographed more than any other planet besides Earth. Some people think it may be possible for life to exist there. Although scientists have not been able to find actual water on Mars, there seems to be evidence of water erosion on its surface. Its canyons and mountains are very similar to those found on Earth. The main difference is that there is no plant life. Some scientists believe that Mars may have been very much like Earth until something happened that made the water supply evaporate.

Practice 2

Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer for the questions below:

1
What keeps planets rotating in their obits around the sun?
2
Earth is the only known planet to have what important feature?
3
What makes the atmosphere of Venus friendlier to plants than humans?
4
On which planet is there a huge difference in temperature between the two sides?
Reading Translation 1
Symbolic Clothing

Hundreds of years ago, umbrellas were symbols of power and authority. Kings, sheikhs, popes, and other rulers believed that owning these sunshades added to their importance. The more umbrellas a ruler had, the more he impressed others; and the bigger his umbrellas, the more power the owner appeared to have. It seems odd to us today that such an everyday object could have once been used to differentiate rulers from ordinary people. Yet at that time, an umbrella was an unambiguous symbol of power. Similarly; contemporary cultures today employ many common things, including clothing, as symbols of social status.
For example, in the civil courts of law in many countries, judges wear long robes, usually black, that cover their ordinary clothing. The robes indentify the judges' role in the courtroom and symbolize their authority to administer justice. In Britain and in most Commonwealth nations, judges and certain court officials also wear white wigs that symbolize their roles.
Similarly, the ceremonial clothing of European kings and queens is symbolic of their royal authority. Nowadays they wear the long, fur- trimmed capes only on special occasions, with jeweled crowns on their heads and jeweled staffs, called scepters, held in their hands. The academic cap and gown is another example of symbolic clothing. Hundreds of years ago, students at European universities were required to wear long, black robes. Today academic robes are worn only for graduation ceremonies along with a close-fitting black cap topped by a flat, black square. Graduating students also wear short drapes of cloth over their gowns, whereby their field of academic specialization is indicated via color. An orange cloth symbolizes engineering, for example, and green symbolizes medicine. A wedding, too, is a change-of-status ceremony.*Đám cưới cũng là một buổi lễ đánh dấu sự thay đổi tình trạng hôn nhân. Traditional attire is an integral part of the ritual.*Trang phục truyền thống là một phần quan trọng của nghi lễ này.[/dich] In a conventional Western wedding, the bride wears a long, white dress. She also wears a white veil on her head and carries a bouquet of flowers. Her clothing and various accessories (which may be hidden) constitute traditional good-luck items that a bride should carry: "something gold, something new, something borrowed, something blue, and a lucky penny in her shoe."

Traditional Western wedding clothes are becoming popular everywhere. The symbolism of the Western white wedding dress is so strong that brides from many non- Western cultures have chosen to include such a dress in their weddings. An Asian bride, for example, might wear a red gown during a traditional wedding ceremony and then change into a white wedding dress. Unlike judges or royalty, who wear symbolic clothing only for certain occasions, religious leaders tend to wear clothing that identifies their religious roles at all times. In many religions, there are two kinds of religious clothing. Religious leaders wear one kind of clothing on a daily basis as they perform nonceremonial tasks. The other kind is what they wear while participating in religious ceremonies. Often this attire is a long robe of a certain color, perhaps decorated with religious symbols. In some religions, the leaders must wear head coverings, while in others they are forbidden to cover their heads.
Military personnel, too, wear uniforms at all times, but different types. One type is for everyday wear, and another is the formal uniform worn for military ceremonies. A third type is worn in battle. Military uniforms serve several symbolic functions. First, the various decorations on a uniform jacket and hat are indexes of someone's position in the military. Second, uniforms encourage members of a group to acquire a sense of unity and pride. Finally; in the context of a battle, uniforms become symbols of the nation the soldiers are defending.
Symbolic clothing can symbolize many things, including authority, nationality and change of status. The objects and clothing that become important symbols in a culture are determined by the special meaning that people give them.
Reading Translation 2
The Inner Planets:

Earth is just one of the planets in our solar system. Planets are large bodies that rotate around the sun. They reflect the sun’s light and warmth. The planets that are located closest to the sun are made out of rocky material. They are relatively small but heavy. In contrast, the planets that are farther away from the sun are much larger. They are formed of light gases. All planets follow a certain path around the sun. They are held a specific distance from the sun by the sun’s strong gravitational force. The inner planets, or those closest to the sun, are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Even though these planets are all small and rocky, they have more differences than they have things in common. Because Mercury is the closest to the sun, the side that faces the sun gets as hot as 4270C. At the same time, the side that faces away from the sun is a freezing -1730C. Mercury also has a slower rate of rotation than Earth. Days and nights on Mercury are much longer than ours. The extreme temperatures alone make it a very unlikely place for life. With an atmosphere too thin for human breathing, it’s obvious that people won’t be living on Mercury any time soon. The next planet from the sun is Venus. Below clouds of sulfuric gas lies its 96% carbon dioxide atmosphere. That might be nice for a plant, since a plant “breathes” carbon dioxide, but not for a person. If you managed to survive the atmosphere, the surface of the planet is hot enough to melt solid metal. In addition, the pressure of the air would be strong enough to crush you. You are probably most familiar with Earth because it is your home planet. It has the perfect conditions for life. Earth’s atmosphere and oceans help control the trickiest part of making a planet life-friendly: temperature. Earth is the only planet known to have liquid water.
Mars is the fourth farthest from the sun. Mars has been studied and photographed more than any other planet besides Earth. Some people think it may be possible for life to exist there. Although scientists have not been able to find actual water on Mars, there seems to be evidence of water erosion on its surface. Its canyons and mountains are very similar to those found on Earth. The main difference is that there is no plant life. Some scientists believe that Mars may have been very much like Earth until something happened that made the water supply evaporate.
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Ai là fan của Princess Star Butterfly thì kết bạn vs tớ nhé. Star Butterfly!!!
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