Human Communication

READING PASSAGE

Questions 1-5

Complete the table below.
Use NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Periods

Features

50,000 years ago

First 1.   of language was considered to have already developed.

Classical Era – Middle Ages

Good speaking ability became an important and useful 2.   .

Cultural, social, and technological conditions were the decisive element of public speaking.

3.   

( Mid-1700s – early 1900s)

Public speaking was still a valued form of communication.

Speaking opportunities increased even for women and slaves.

Information Age

(1960 – present)

Main issues concerning public speaking such as freedom of speech and concepts of speakers were raised, especially in the USA.

More and more people could enter into the 4.    to protest, advocate, and fight for their rights.

5.    such as cable television seemed to create more chances for people to express their minds.

1. The second paragraph says “...the human populations that began to migrate out of Africa more than 50,000 years ago must have already developed a prototype or one of the first models of language.”

2. The third paragraph says “Gradually, the ability to speak well became a valuable social skill.”

3. The fourth paragraph says “The Industrial Age (mid-1700s–early 1900s) brought tremendous changes in the way people communicate.”

4. The sixth paragraph says “More than at any other time in history, social minorities, women, and college and high school students were able to join the public dialogues to protest, advocate, and fight for their rights.”

5. The sixth paragraph says “In addition, new media like cable television and progressive FM radio appeared to increase the opportunities for ordinary people to speak their minds in public forums.”

Questions 6-10

Do the following statements agree with the information given in the Reading Passage?
In blanks 6–10, type

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

6.    One of the reasons for the development of modern communication is the big number of languages all over the world.

The information in this statement is not mentioned in the text.
The first paragraph only says “However, some of the conditions that led to the development of modern communication have been discovered.”

7.    Our ancestors could physically create sounds physically more than 3 million years ago.

The first paragraph says “it is certain that our ancestors were physically able to produce sounds more than three million years ago.”

8.    In Greece during the classical era, all men had the right to speak in public.

The third paragraph says “...in Greece, during the classical era (500–100 BC), only well-educated men could speak in public and the forms of communication available to them were greatly limited.”

9.    The number of the well-educated citizens in Western society increased very quickly throughout the industrial age.

The fourth paragraph says “In Western countries, a rapidly growing and educated middle-class demanded more and more information and entertainment.”

10.    The methods and techniques of public speech during the industrial age were not much different from those during the classical era.

The fifth paragraph says “The industrial age (mid-1700s–early 1900s) brought tremendous changes in the way people communicate.”

Questions 11-12

Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.

11. The word “rudimentary” in the third paragraph means

A. improved.
B. basic.
C. found.
D. modern.
The third paragraph says “Life on Early humans used rudimentary speech to convey their thoughts, experiences, and instructions to others. This is behavior forms the foundation of public communication.”

12. What is the best title for the Reading Passage?

A. The evolution of spoken human communication
B. Human’s ability to use complex language
C. The development of human society and technology
D. The changes in the right to speak in public

The first paragraph says “However, some of the conditions that led to the development of modern communication have been discovered” and the whole passage explains this idea by mentioning the development of spoken human communication from 50,000 years ago to present.

Vocabulary Review

I. Scan the passage for the following words (on the left) and read the sentences containing them carefully.
Match these words with their definitions (on the right).

Words

Definitions

1. civilization (n) a) a state of human society that is very developed and organized
2. offspring (n) b) a child of a particular person or couple
3. valuable (adj) c) belonging to or connected with the particular place or area that you are talking about or with the place where you live
4. local (adj) d) very important and useful
5. tremendous (adj) e) very great, huge

1.   2.   3.   4.   5.  

Vocabulary Review

II. Complete the following sentences using the suitable words in the box below.
Sometimes you have to change the form of the words to make them grammatically correct in the sentences.

   offspring        tremendous       valuable     local       civilization

1. We live here so our children go to the    school.

2. A    amount of work has gone into the project.

3. These pictures illustrate the    of ancient Greece and Rome.

4. The book provides    information on recent trends.

5. Parents should be responsible for rearing their   .

READING PASSAGE

Below is the Reading Passage with more useful words and phrases highlighted in blue.

The evolution of spoken human communication

Because speech leaves no fossil trace, it is impossible to know precisely when humans first began to talk. However, some of the conditions that led to the development of modern communication have been discovered. For instance, it is certain that our ancestors were physically able to produce sounds more than three million years ago.

Moreover, in order to coordinate hunting, care for offspring and create communities, the human populations. that began to migrate out of Africa more than 50,000 years ago must have already developed a prototype or one of the first models of language. Since then, the ability to use complex language has developed over thousands of years.

Early humans used rudimentary speech to convey their thoughts, experiences, and instructions to others. This is behavior forms the foundation of public communication. Gradually, the ability to speak well became a valuable social skill. Nevertheless, civilizations developed, not everyone was allowed to participate in the public discourse - culture dictated who had the right to speak in public. For example, in Greece, during the Classical Era (500 – 100 BC), only well-educated men could speak in public and the forms of communication available to them were greatly limited. These cultural, social, and technological conditions defined public speaking in Western civilization for centuries, right up through the Middle Ages (1000 – 1500). 

The Industrial Age (mid-1700s – early 1900s) brought tremendous changes in the way people communicate. In Western countries, a rapidly growing and educated middle-class demanded more and more information and entertainment. Newspapers and magazines, and then radio and early films, fed these demands, and black-and-white television wasn’t far behind. Other early consumer technologies - the home telephone, the instant camera, and simple audio recording devices - became the precursors of the personal communications devices used today.

In the midst of this technological revolution, public speaking remained a valued form of communication. True, the methods and techniques of public speech were much the same as they had been during the classical era, but over time the opportunities for speaking increased dramatically. Speeches printed in newspapers or broadcast over radio reached people around the world, not just local communities. Moreover, more people were allowed to contribute to the public speaking. Famous examples include women’s rights activists Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, who fought for voting rights for women, and abolitionists such as Frederick Douglass, a former African American slave who became a powerful and influential orator or speaker.

The Information Age (1960 – present) exploded in the Sixties, when the technological and cultural changes continue to influence the way we live. In the United States, political battles spread about the Vietnam War, civil rights, gender equality, environmentalism, and the “establishment” of American values. Freedom of speech was an important issue, and college campuses were hotbeds of political debates. Current concepts of who could participate in the public discourse, and thus who had social power, were challenged constantly. More than at any other time in history, social minorities, women, and college and high school students were able to join the public dialogues to protest, advocate, and fight for their rights. In addition, new media like cable television and progressive FM radio appeared to increase the opportunities for ordinary people to speak their minds in public forums.

 
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