Bài 18: Câu điều kiện - phần 6 (Conditionals - part 6)

Conditionals, part 6


So, up to now we’ve talked about using only “would have + the past participle” in the result clause

Other modals can be used and I’d like to share a couple of examples

Again with the help of flags

Do you know this one?

This is the French flag, the flag of France

I’ve been France a few times

And I enjoy its myself

I think I might have enjoyed myself more if I had learned to speak better French

So in the result clause, I used "might have + the past participe" and it expresses the possibility

“Might have + the past participle”

So here is second example

This is the Canadian flag, the flag of Canada

After college and someone in the middle of graduate school, I went to Toranto to visit a friend there

It was the only city I got to see because I didn’t have much money to go to travel all around Canada

I could have seen more of Canada if I had had more money

So in this statement I used “could have + the past participle”, again to talk about possibility

“Could have + the past participle can express possibility or ability

So the truth I wasn't able to see more of Canada. Why? Because I didn’t have much money

And note that in that “If” clause I had two “had”, “if I had had more money”

To some ears it might sound strange but it’s correct because the past perfect is “had” plus the past participle

In that statement my main verb was “have” and its past participle it’s “had”

So if I had had more money, I could have seen more of Canada

Let’s review

Unreal conditionals in the past, the statements show situations that are untrue meaning they never happened

Unreal meaning imaginary.

Or disappointing meaning the regrettable, things that we regret

Let’s talk more specifically about those untrue situations

We might use the unreal conditionals to emphasize the connection between two events in the past

For example, if I hadn’t seen the ad, I wouldn’t have found work on a cruise ship

And if I hadn’t worked on that cruise ship, I wouldn’t have spent time in the Bahamas

As for unreal situations, you want to imagine another possibility

For example, if my childhood home had been Buckingham Palace, I would have had few friends but a lot of rooms to play

Disappointing situations, you might want to express a regret with the unreal conditional

For example, if I had known Spanish, I would have had more conversations with Mexicans during my trip

Note the order clauses, the “If” clause can come first in a statement or can follow the result

If I hadn’t gone to Russia, I wouldn’t have met my husband

I wouldn’t have met my husband if I hadn’t gone to Russia

Note that the comma is used only when the “If” clause comes first

If we’re speaking then we pass the place of the comma

Verb tenses, use the past perfect in the “If” clause

Examples, if I hadn’t gone to Russia, if I had lived in Japan

The past perfect is “had” plus the past participle

As for verbs in the result clause, most often we use “would have” plus the past participle

Examples, if I hadn’t gone to Russia, I wouldn’t have met my husband

I would have learned more Japanese if I had lived in Japan

Note with pronunciation, “would have” in fast speech sound like “would've”

I would've learned more Japanese if I had lived in Japan

“Might have” plus the past participle expresses an unlikely but possible result

I might have enjoyed myself more in France if I had learned to speak better French

“Could have” plus the past participle expresses either a possible result or someone’s ability

I could have seen more of Canada if I had had more money

They can also be progressive verbs in the “If” clause

Example, if it hadn’t been raining, we wouldn’t have shared a pleasant walk under the same umbrella

That’s “If” plus the past perfect progressive

So let’s try an exercise

In the exercise put the verbs in the correct forms

For example, you read the statement to yourself and then I’ll tell you the answer

Answer, if Samuel Morse hadn’t invented the telegraph, other inventors might not have created the radio, telephone, or television

And I note here that Samuel Morse isn’t the only one who had a hand in creating telegraph but his name that most Americans know

So here’s number one

Answer, if the Titanic hadn’t hit an iceberg, the ship wouldn’t have sunk

Two, answer: The 13 British colonies wouldn’t have become the United States of American back in 1776 if there hadn’t been a war against England

Three, answer: Fewer countries might have formed if our world had remained one continent

Four, answer: if intelligent humans had been living at the same time as the dinosaurs, they could have passed on a better understanding of those great creatures to us

Five, answer: The people of Pompei, Italy might have survived the terrible volcanic eruption of 79 A.D if there had been some kind warning

Here’s the final exercise. In this exercise, read the following situation and then answer the questions using conditional statements

And of course, the conditional statements will be unreal conditionals statements in the past

Was it a crime?

Victor was a poor man with a wife and a child

His job at the grocery store paid little money

One day the owner of the store caught Victor taking home fruit and a few canned goods

Victor was fired

One, if you had been the store owner, would you have fired Victor?

Two, if you had been Victor, would you have tried to explain your actions?

Three, if you had been Victor’s co – worker and had seen him take the food, would you have tried to stop him?

One thing you can do with the statements from the previous exercise is to share them with your friends who's also studying English

If you still have doubts, you can send them to me, I’ll correct them for you

Send them along to EnglishwithJennifer@gmail.com that’s the end of our lesson on unreal conditional in the past

Thanks for watching!

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An introduction to articles
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