Bài 9: The structure of phrasal verbs

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Topic: The structure of phrasal verbs
Watch and listen
I just went to the attic to get this.
Do you know why?

Halloween is coming up. Americans celebrate this holiday on October 31.

Probably the most popular traddition on Halloween is trick-or-treating.
Children choose costumes, put them on and go around the neighborhoods to receive candy.

I’d like to tell you a little bit about how my family is preparing for Halloween.
Now watch and listen again.

I use three phrasal verbs: come up, put on, and go around.
Pay attention to their structure.

Do they have objects?

What did you observe?

Do phrasal verbs have objects?
The answer is yes and no.

Phrasal verbs can be transitive meaning followed by an object or intransitive meaning not followed by an object.

Here are three phrasal verbs I used.

Which ones have an object?

Halloween is coming up.

Children put on costumes.

They go around the neighborhoods to receive candy.

Put on and go around.

Come up is intransitive. There is no object.

If something is coming up, it’s happening soon.

We use it in the present progressive.

Put on is transitive. It means dress in.
Put on a costume, put on a coat, put on a hat.

Go around is also transitive.

If you go around somewhere, you’re moving from place to place.
Go around the neighborhood, go around the city, go around the world.
Now let’s answer the question.
Where does the object of a transitive phrasal verb go?

Did you know the word order?

You heard me place an object after a phrasal verb as in “put on costumes, go around the neighborhood”.
But object can have more than one position.
It’s also correct to say: Children put costumes on.

However, it’s incorrect to say: They go the neighborhood around to receive candy.
What did they tell us?

It means that transitive phrasal verbs can be separable or inseparable or so-called non separable.

By separable, I mean the object can come between the verb and the particle as in “put costumes on”.
At this point, I think it would be helpful for you to see the breakdown of phrasal verb.

They can be intransitive or transitive.

There are probably more transitive phrasal verbs than intransitive.

If transitive, it will be separable or inseparable.
We saw examples of each.
Go around- it’s inseparable.

Put on- it’s separable.
Now if it’s separable, probably it can be separated. There is the choice.

For example: Put on costumes, put costumes on.
There are some phrasal verbs that actually must be separated by an object.

And we’ll see this one example later in the lesson.

I should also note that sometimes a phrasal verb can be more than one type.
If you ever in doubt about the structure of the phrasal verb, consult a dictionary.
However, if you use a transitive phrasal verb and you have to guess, place the object after the phrasal verb. You will be correct.
One rule about object placement must be stressed.

With a phrasal verb that is separable, pronouns as direct objects must be placed between the verb and its particle.
We’ve seen it with “put on”.

It’s correct to say: Children put on costumes, children put costumes on, and children put them on.

We can not say: Children put on them.

The object pronoun “them” must come between the verb and the particle.

Exercise 1: Identify the meaning of each phrasal verb as well as the grammar it requires.

Example. Watch and listen

Probably on Halloween, I’ll go around the neighborhood with my children, and my husband will stay home and to hand out candy.

You heard me say my husband will hand out candy.

What does “hand out” mean?

a. steal from everyone
b. show to everyone
c. give to everyone

It means C. When you hand out things, you give those things to everyone in a group or everyone in a place.
Look again at this statement.

Is “hand out” intransitive or transitive?
Well, he’s handing out candy, candy is the object.

So “hand out” is transitive. I also tell you that is the seperable phrasal verb.

He can hand out candy or hand candy out. But note with the pronoun, we have to say “he hands it out”
I also want you to take the second look at this statement.

I’ll go around the neighborhood with my children.
Go around is transitive, but in this statement, how many objects do you see?

Well, the neighborhood is the object of the phrasal verb.
What about my children?

That is the object of preposition “with”.
I do not see “with” as part of a phrasal verb because it’s not changing the definition. “With” is only adding information here.

I could simply say: I’ll go around the neighborhood.

With my chilren is simply adding the information of who is my company.
1. Watch and listen

My son is especially looking forward to Halloween.

This year he’s decided to be a character from a movie- WALL-E.

WALL-E is a robot, I’ve been working on this costume for two or three weeks. And this is what I’ve done so far.
This is the body.

These are the eyes.
Somehow they’ll go on top of his head…like that.
I said: “My son is looking forward to Halloween”.

What does “look forward to” mean?

a. scared of a future problem.
b. be excited about a future event.
c. cannot understand

The answer is B.

Look at this statement again.

Is “look forward to” intransitive or transitive?

The object is Halloween.
This phrasal verb is transitive. It is inseparable.

We have three parts. The object must follow the second particle.
In the clip, you also heard me say: I’ve been working on this costume for two or three weeks.
What did “work on” mean?

a. try to make or fix

b. choose quickly

c. try to get or buy

The answer is A. Working on something is about producing it or developing it. Working on a project , for example.
Look at the statement again.

Is “work on” intransitive or transitive?

The object is “this costume”, so it’s transitive.

Work on is inseparable. The object must follow the phrasal verb.

2. Watch and listen

The robot WALL-E has arms.
I’ve made pieces of the arms to go like this.
But I’m not sure yet how they’re going to stick to my son’s arms.

So I went to the store today, and I picked up some elastic.
I taped it to the backs, and I think with the help of the elastic, the arms will turn out well.

What do you think? Can you imagine that?
You heard me say: I went to the store, and I picked up some elastic.
What does “pick up” mean?

a. buy
b. lose
c. hide
The answer is A: buy.
Look at the statement again.

Is “pick up” intransitive or transitive?
The object is “some elastic”.

This is transitive and separable.
Note the possible word choices:

-pick up some elastic
-pick some elastic up
-pick it up

In the clip, I also said: I think the arms of the robot will turn out well.

What does “turn out” mean?

a.result or happen in a certain way

b. break or stop working

c. become easier to understand
The answer: A.

Look at the statement again.

Is “turn out” intransitive or transitive?
There is no object, “turn out” is intransitive.

3. Watch and listen

You already know that my son is going to dress up as WALL-E.

As for my daughter, she’s still very little, so I’m not sure she even understands what Halloween is.
But I’m hoping on October 31, I’ll be able to talk her into dressing up as a cheerleader.
I think she’d be very cute.

As for me, I’m one of those adults that still enjoys dressing up. I think I’m going to be a nurse.

This was my mother’s nursing cape.
This is from the 1960s, so nurses don’t wear capes like this anymore.

So I have a nursing cape, and I picked up some fabric…white fabric.

And I think somehow, I’ll be able to make a nurse’s cap

In the clip, I said: I still enjoy dressing up.
I’m going to dress up as a nurse from the 1960s.

What does “dress up” mean?

a. wash clothes
b. go to a party
c. wear special clothes

The answer is C. Special clothes can be a formal clothing or a costume. It depends on the context.

Look again at the statement.

Is “dress up” intransitive or transitive?
In this statement, it’s intransitive. There is no object.

But we can follow the phrasal verb with a preposition or phrase.

-I can dress up.

-I can dress up as a nurse.
-I can dress up in a nurse’s uniform.

This phrasal verb also has a transitive form: I can dress someone up

For example: my daughter.

I can dress her up as a cheerleader.

In the clip, I also said: I hope I’ll be able to talk my daughter into dressing up as a cheerleader.

What does “talk into” mean?

a.explain

b.persuade

c. force
The answer: B.

Look again at the statement.

Is “talk into” intransitive or transitive?
It’s transitive. There are two objects.
The first object is the direct object. It follows the verb.

The other object is the indirect object. It must follow the second particle.

We can talk someone into something.

We can talk someone into doing something.

Exercise 2: Answer the questions. Try to use the phrasal verb (s) in your response.

1. Name a holiday or event that is coming up. Are you looking forward to it? Why or why not?

2. Do you like dressing up? How often do you put on formal clothing? Do you feel comfortable going around when you’re dressed formally?

3. Can people easily talk you into doing things?

4. Name a project you worked on for a long time. How did the project turn out?

5. Where could you pick up a small gift for a dinner host? Do you buy such gifts in advance, or you pick them up at the last minute?

There are still more to come.

In the future lesson, we’ll review the structure of phrasal verbs.

I’ll explain how compound words or forms form the phrasal verb.

And we’ll take a close look at the pronunciation patterns of phrasal verbs.
For now, I’d like to invite you to englishcafe.com where additional practices for this lesson is available under the name JenniferESL.

That’s all for now. Thanks for watching and Happy Studies! and Happy Halloween!

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CÁC Ý KIẾN BÌNH LUẬN - PHẢN HỒI VỀ BÀI HỌC NÀY
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Đơn giản chỉ là cày bài viết (:
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Cr_ ❤
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A little easy.
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Yêu em được gì ngoài "Niemdau":)
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An introduction to articles
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That’s all for now.
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It's a great topic
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