Bài 6: Thì hiện tại hoàn thành - phần 4 (Present perfect - part 4)

Present perfect, part 4

Topic, Verb tenses

Our focus on will be the present perfect and the present perfect progressive

In part 4 we practice using times expressions and then we finally turn our attention to understanding and using the present perfect progressive

The two main kinds of time expresions that we look at are adverbs and prepositions

Let’s look at the most common ones first

The adverb “ Ever” is used in Yes – No Questions to refer to the past in general

Example, "Have you ever ridden a snowmobile?"

Meaning at anytime in your past did you ride a snowmobile?

The adverb “Never” is used to express that an action or event did not happen at anytime in the past

Example, "I’ve never visited South America"

Meaning I didn’t visit South America at anytime in my past

The adverb “Already” is used in questions or statements to emphasize an unspecified time before now

First example, " Has her plane landed already?"

Meaning tell me yes or no the time of landing isn’t important

Second example, "I’ve ready read that book"

Meaning at some point in the past I read it

Please, note the placement of “Already

We can put it at the end of statement or just before the past participle

Example, "Has her plane landed already?" or "Has her plane already landed?"

"I’ve read that book already". "I’ve already that book"

The adverb “Yet” is used in negative questions and statements to stress the time before now

It’s the opposite of “Already

Example, "why haven’t you finished yet?"

Meaning why didn’t you finish before now?

Example "Jennifer’s latest video hasn’t been rated yet"

Meaning no one rated it before now

The preposition “For” is used to state a time period that began in the past and continues to now

So the focus is on duration

Example, "I’ve been married for 11 years"

"We’ve been friends for a long time"

The preposition “Since” is used to mark the start of a time period that began in the past and continues to now

Example, "I’ve lived in New England since 2001"

"I haven’t seen my brother since last Christmas"

Let’s talk about “Since” as a conjunction

Since” can also used with a clause that is a complete idea with a subject and a verb

Here is an example

"I’ve known her since we were little girls"

The clause is "we were little girls"

Note that in the clause, we use the simple past tenses to mark the start that of time period.

Look at the difference between “Since” of as preposition and “Since” of as conjunction

"I’ve known her since we were little girls"

"I’ve known her since childhood

The conjunction is followed by aclause, A complete idea with a subject and a verb

Please, don’t confuse “Since and For

For” is used to state periods of time (duration).

Since” is used to mark the beginning of a time period (starting point)

Example, "I’ve been married for 11 years"

"I’ve been married since 1997"

The preposition “In” is used in the negative to express how long an action hasn’t been done or how long an event hasn’t happened

Example," I haven’t seen her in years"

"I haven’t seen her in ages"

"I haven’t seen her in  a long time."

In” is similar to for

But we use only “In” with the negative

Exercise one: Choose the best word or phrase to complete the statement

Number 1: Choose “Ever” or “Already”? Your clue's to ask about general past experience

The question is “Have you ever been to the beach on the East coast?”

2: Choose “Since” or “In”?

Answer, "I’ve swum in the ocean many times, but I haven’t been to the beach in over 2 years"

Number 3, Choose “Already” or “Yet

Answer: "I’ve visited that museum a few times already, but I wouldn’t mind going again"

Number four, Choose “Already” or “Yet

Answer, "There's one section of that museum that I haven’t seen yet"

Number 5, Choose “Since” or “For

Answer, "This is my friend, Sheree"

"We've known each other since grade school"

Number 6, choose “In” or “for

Answer, "Sometimes it’s hard to believe that Sheree and I have been friends for more than two decades!"

To help you a bit more let me share some other time expressions common to use with the present perfect

They are: Always, often, just, still, so far, for a while and at one time or another

Let’s me give you examples

"I’ve always wondered about that"

Meaning continually in the past and up to the present time

"I’ve often thought about you"

Meaning frequently in the past and up to the present time

"I’ve just learned the truth"

This has emphasis on the recent past

"I still haven’t heard from him"

Meaning yet as in I haven’t heard from him yet

"That’s the best work I’ve done so far, meaning up to now"

"I’ve had this cold for a while"

Meaning for an unspecified or unknown period of time (usually not long), an other way to say it is for some time

I’ve seen them together at once time or another, meaning on occasion, from time to time

It’s time now to talk about the present perfect progressive

Some of you may know it as the present perfect continuous

Let’s me give you an example

"Once upon a time I was a traditional classroom teacher"

"I have a classroom, desks, chairs, a white board board but now I have a virtual classroom, and you’re in it!"

"I’ve been teaching online for just over a year"

Why did I say “ I have been teaching”?

Because I want to emphasize the duration, The duration of about one year

When you want to emphasize a duration that begin in the past and continues to now

We use the present perfect progressive

This is an action that is Not complete yet

Let’s me explain again why we use the present perfect progressive?

There are two basic reasons

Not necessarily separate but different reasons

The first to emphasize the duration of an action  that began in the past and continues to now

The second reason is to express an action that began in the past and is still in progress

It’s unfinished, not complete

Let’s me give you two examples

"I’ve been teaching English for more than 10 years"

"I’ve been researching software that could help me make better videos"

In both examples, we have an action that began in the past and continue to the present

Both actions are incomplete

But in the first we’ve added emphasizes on duration

I’m telling you how long it been

In the second, we simply saying that the action is not yet finish

Note, both the present perfect and the present perfect progressive can emphasize the duration of a time period that began in the past and continues to now

But if the verb expresses no action just a state or condition, then the progressive is not used

Here are two examples

"I’ve known my neighbors all my life"

"I’ve been a fan of Sting since the 1980s"

Both the verb “know” and “be” express the state

It’s very unusual to use them in the progressive tense

Forming the present perfect progressive is not difficult

You need two helping verbs “have been / has been” followed by the present participle, a verb in the “Ing

Let’s give you some practice doing this

Exercise two, complete each statement with the present perfect progressive

Number one, Read the statement to yourself  first

"Over the past few days, my husband has been watching a series of documentaries on physics"

"He finds it interesting to learn about the structure of atoms"

Two, answer, "my son has been asking for a wagon for Christmas ever since he saw one in a book he got from the library"

Three, answer, "My brother and I have been trying to learn more information about our relatives from past generations"

"He really got me interested by stating a family tree online about a year ago"

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