Bài 5: Thì hiện tại hoàn thành - phần 3 (Present perfect - part 3)

Present perfect, part 3


Topic: Verb tenses

Our focus will be on the present perfect and the present perfect progressive

This is part 3

And we now practice forming the negative and forming questions in the present perfect

How do we form the negative in the present perfect?

The helping verb “Have / Has” is followed by “Not” and then the past participle

Example, "There has not been a change of plans", or "There hasn’t been a change of plans"

The contractions then the following “Have not” become “Haven’t”, “Has not” become “Hasn’t

And remember you can use the contractions or short forms in spoken English or in informal writing

Exercise one, Complete the statements with negative verbs in the present perfect

Number 1, Read the statement to yourself and then I’ll tell you the answer

Answer, "My husband and I don’t go to many formal events"

"He hasn’t worn a tuxedo in years"

Number two, Answer, "I live in the suburbs of Boston"

"I haven’t gone downtown for almost a month"

"I don’t have much reason to travel far from home" 

Number three, Answer: "My children enjoy visiting this local farm, but they haven’t been there since early October"

Let’s talk about forming questions, will begin with “Yes - No questions

Here is the structure

Use the helping verb “Have / Has” plus the subject plus the past participle

Let’s look at two examples

Have you taught children?

Has she studied other languages?

What is the answer?

You can use short answers to Yes - No questions

They are “Yes, I have”or “No, I haven’t” ; “Yes, she has” or “No, she hasn’t

So, it is not necessary to give a full answer with the past participle

Note, we often use the adverb “Ever” in questions about general past experience

For example, Have you ever taught children?

If you choose to use “Ever” places between the subject and the main verb

Now, let’s talk about information questions

Here’s the structure

Begin with question words such as “Where, Who, How” then choose the helping verb “Have / Has” followed by subject followed by the past participle

This structure is used in the first two examples below

Where have you traveled?

Who have you traveled with?

The structure changes only when the question was “who” is about the subject

For example, who has traveled more, you or him?

Exercise 2, form questions based on the answer provided

Number one, let’s work together the answer is:

"I’ve only visited the Philippines once"

Your clues are in black “visited and once

So the main verb in the question will be “visit

And “once” will tell you that we need to ask the question about “how many times”?

So let’s begin with the question word or question phrase which is “how many times

Helping verb “have”, subject “You”, main verb “visited

So the full question is "how many times have you visited the Philippines?"

Answer, "I’ve only visited the Philippines once"

That’s the fact truth

That hopefully on make another visit in the future

Number 2, look first that is answer

"Yes, I have. I only drove a little"

"I rode behind the driver most of the time"

You have two clues: "Yes and Rode"

Think, what kind of question do you need to ask?

And what will be the form of the main verb

I give you a moment to form the question

The question is “have you ridden a snowmobile?” you can also ask “have you ever ridden a snowmobile ?

Number 3, again look first that is the answer

“Yes, I have, I think you can say I was seriously injured when I burned my hands on the kitchen oven. I was one or two at the time"

Again, I give you some clues “Yes – tells you that will  be Yes – No questions

The main verb is “injured” but look closely “was injured” that is the passive voice

Take a moment and try to form the question on our own

The question is “have you ever been seriously injured?

And yes that’s me in the photograph with burned hands of a little girl

This is the truth story

I did burn my hands on the kitchen oven

I think this is a good time two parts in review

Let’s see what you remember from earlier part of the lesson

Why do we use the present perfect?

There were 3 reasons we look at

The first reason is to state that something began in the past and continues to the present

The second reason is to express an unfinished period of time

An action likely happened repeatedly and many happen again

The third reason is to talk about past action at unspecified times to talk about general past experience

Now, let’s me present one more reason this will be the fourth reason for using the present perfect

We also use the present perfect to report events that happened in the recent past

So, we can talk about the distant past meaning the long time ago and the recent past - a short time ago

Here are two examples

The first “there’s been a change of plan”

So the change took place recently perhaps just yesterday

Second example

"Congratulations! You’ve just won a million dollars!"

So this news is very recent, the event is recent

The effect or effects of that recent event are still seen or are still felt in the present

For example, when I said, “there’s been a change of plan

Peharps, the change took place yesterday but that means today things are very different

The difference from what we expected there would be and if you’ve just won a million dollars, perhaps you won that money yesterday and you still have that money today

Let’s see how well you’ve understood everything so far

We’ll try an exercise

Exercise 3, Read the statement and then answer the question

Number 1, "Have you seen any good films lately?"

You answer can be very short and very general

Yes, I have or No, I haven’t

But if you choose to give me the specific information with specific times and dates

Then you need to the simple past

For example, "Yes, yesterday I saw very interesting films"

Number 2, "how many English language videos have you watched in the past three days?"

Your answer should use the present perfect

For example, "I’ve watched 3 videos"

Number 3, "have any of your personal or progressional plans changed over the past few months?"

And now let’s use the general or specific if you like

We’re not quite done yet

Please go on to the last part of this lesson

Be short to watch part 4. We’re going to practice using time expressions and finally explain when we use the present perfect progressive.

I'll see you there.


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